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Encoder & PID

Encode & PID
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Transducers (such as optical or magnetic encoders) sense position or orientation for use as a reference or active feedback to control position:
A rotary encoder converts rotary position to an analog (e.g., analog quadrature) or digital (e.g., digital quadrature, 32-bit parallel, or USB) electronic signal.
A linear encoder similarly converts linear position to an electronic signal.

Such encoders can be either absolute or incremental. The signal from an absolute encoder gives an unambiguous position within the travel range without requiring knowledge of any previous position. The signal from an incremental encoder is cyclical, thus ambiguous, and requires counting of cycles to maintain absolute position within the travel range. Both can provide the same accuracy, but the absolute encoder is more robust to interruptions in transducer signal.


A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems (Programmable Logic Controllers, SCADA systems, Remote Terminal Units etc). A PIDcontroller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint. The controller attempts to minimize the error in outputs by adjusting the process control inputs.

The PID controller algorithm involves three separate constant parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted P, I, and D. Simply put, these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change.[1] The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to a heating element.

In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process, a PID controller has historically been considered to be the best controller.[2] By tuning the three parameters in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint, and the degree of system oscillation.

Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability. Some applications may require using only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action.

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